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Before yesterdayUnifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories

Einstein’s explanation of mass and why it is resistance to a change in motion.

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

Physicists who are proponents of the Standard Model realized in order for it to agree with observations it was necessary to imagine a new field called the Higgs which must exist everywhere in the universe to explain what mass is and its resistance to acceleration. However, shoring up existing theories by inventing new theoretical components to the universe is dangerous, and in the past led physicists to hypothesize a universal aether but the more math they did, the more they realized that the Higgs field simply had to be real. The only problem? By the very way they’d defined it, the Higgs field would be virtually impossible to observe.

However, if they had spent the time to analyze the conceptual foundations of Einstein, they would have realized that he had already explained mass and its resistance to motion in terms of his math and observations.

He was able to explained the physicality of mass in terms of an increase in the energy density of space while defining its resistance to a change in motion terms of it occupying a “flat” region in space-time.  This is because he showed us the increase in the energy density caused by mass results in the “surface” of space-time to be curved. Therefore, one can assume a mass moving at a constant velocity MUST be moving through “flat” region of it whose energy level is constant because if it was not, it would be accelerated.

Yet this also allows one to define relative motion in terms of the different energy levels they occupy in space-time.  For example, Einstein’s equation E=mc^2 that defines the

equivalence

between mass and energy tells us the magnitude of them would be directly related to mass.  In other words, a large mass that is not in relative motion with respect to smaller one would occupy a higher energy level.

However, if they were in relative motion one would have to add the energy associated with its motion to determine their relative energy levels.  Putting it another, way the difference between the energy levels of two objects in motion would not only be related to their mass but also to their relative velocities. Therefore, according to Einstein relative motion occurs when the difference between their energy levels in space-time exceeds what is associated with their masses.  Additionally, it tells us to change motion of mass one must also change its energy level.

(The reason all motion is relative is because as was just shown Einstein defined it only in terms of the difference in the energy level between masses in space-time.)

This conclusion is supported by the fact that Einstein derived the force of gravity in terms of a change in the energy levels occupied by a mass as it moves along a curvature in the “surface” of space-time.

This provides an explanation of the resistance, force, or energy required to change the motion of a mass that is consistent with Einstein definition of gravity because as was mentioned earlier the change in motion or acceleration of objects in a gravitational field is a result of them moving through different energy level in space-time. This suggests the resistance or force required to overcome the resistance or a change in motion of a mass is a result of the energy required to change the energy level it is occupying in space time.

This means that one may not have to as some have suggested “invent new theoretical components” to define mass and its resistance a change in its state of motion because as was shown above Einstein equation E=mc^2 defines its physicality in terms of the energy density of space-time while he showed that one can derive its resistance to a change in motion in terms of the force required to change the energy level it occupies in space-time.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2021

The post Einstein’s explanation of mass and why it is resistance to a change in motion. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.

11. Quantum Entanglement gives us a way to experimentally determine why the universe is what it is.

Entanglement provides a VERY SIMPLE experimental way of determining if Quantum mechanics or Einstein’s Relativistic theories define why our universe is what it is.

This is because it is one of the central principles of quantum physics. In short it assumes two particles or molecules share on a quantum level one or more properties such as spin, polarization, or momentum. This connection persists even if you move one of the entangled objects far away from the other. Therefore, when an observer interacts with one the other is instantly affected.

However, it contradicts the central core Einstein’s theory of Relativity which states that no information can be transmitted instantaneously or faster than the speed of light.

Since these two concepts are diametrically opposite, if one can define the mechanism responsible for entanglement in terms of either one it would invalidate the other will help us to understand why our universe is what it is.

This is because there is irrefutable experimental evidence the act of measuring the state of one of a pair of photons instantaneously affect the other even though they are physically separated from each other.

As was mentioned earlier quantum physics, assumes ALL entangled particles, not only photons remain connected so that actions performed on one immediately affect the other, even when separated by great distances.

While Einstein tells us that instantaneous or faster than light communication between to particles is impossible.  However, he also told us the distance between two objects or points in space is defined by their relative motion and that there is no preferred reference frame by which one can define that distance.

Therefore, he tells the distance between the observational points in a laboratory, can also be defined from the perspective of the photons moving at the speed of light.

Yet, his formula for length contraction (shown below) tells us the separation between those observational points from the perspective of two photons moving at the speed of light would be ZERO no matter how far apart they might be from the perspective of an observer in that laboratory. This is because, as was just mentioned according to the concepts of Relativity one can view the photons as being stationary and the observers as moving at the velocity of light.

Therefore, according to Einstein’s theory all photons which are traveling at the speed of light are entangled no matter how far they may appear to be someone who is looking at them.  Additionally, it also tells us information exchange between two entangle photons does not travel faster than the speed of light because from their perspective the distance between the observation points where information was read is zero.

In other words, entanglement of photons can be explained and predicted terms of the relativistic properties of space-time as defined by Einstein as well as by quantum mechanics.

HOWEVER, AS WAS MENTIONED EARLIER ONE OF THE CORE PRINCIPALS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS  IS THAT ALL PARTICLES SHARE ON A QUANTUM LEVEL ONE OR MORE PROPERTIES SUCH AS SPIN POLARIZATION OR MOMENTUM.

This gives us a way of experimentally determining which of these two theories define why entanglement occurs because if it is found that some particles that are NOT moving at the speed of light experience entanglement it would validate one of the core principals of quantum mechanics and invalidate Relativities assumption that information cannot be exchange instantaneously or faster that the speed of light.

However, one MUST ALSO use another core principle of quantum mechanics defined by De Broglie that particle are made up wave with a wavelength defined by ? = h/p to determine if it or Einstein’s theories define how the universe works. This is because it tells us all material particles have an extended volume equal to there wavelength

Yet because ALL particles have an extended volume equal to their wavelength there will be an overlap or entanglement if the distance separating them is less than their volume as defined by De Broglie.

This tells us some particles moving slower than the speed of light CAN BE entangled if the relativistic distance between the observation points from the perspective of the particles is less than their extended volume is because from their perspective they are in physical contact.

This means that both relativity and quantum mechanics tell us that all particles CAN be entangled if the distance between the end points of the measurements of their shared properties is less than their wavelength or volume as defined by De Broglie.

However, this gives us a way to DEFINITIVELY determine which one of these theories defines the reason for entanglement because we can precisely define the wavelength and therefore the volume of a particle by, as mentioned earlier using De Broglie formula ? = h/p while one can determine the relative distance between the observation points from the perspective of the particles being observed by using Einstein formula for length contraction.  If it is found entanglement DOES NOT occur if that distance is greater than a particles volume then it would invalidate the core principles of quantum mechanics that two particles or molecules share on a quantum level one or more properties such as spin, polarization, or momentum no matter how far they are separated.  However, if it is found that entanglement does occur even if the separation was greater than their volume it would invalidate the core principals of relativity that no information can be transferred faster that the speed of light.

In other words, it gives us a doable experimental that will UNEQUIVOCALLY tell us if Quantum Mechanics or Einstein’s’ theories define why the universe is what it is

IT CANNOT GET MUCH SIMPLER THAN THAT.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Apr. 2021

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 1
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2010


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The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

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The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 3
2015 thru
2020


Ebook
$8.00


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The post 11. Quantum Entanglement gives us a way to experimentally determine why the universe is what it is. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.

Thompson’s double slit experiment made easy

Richard Feynman the farther of Quantum Electrodynamics or “OED” realized the significance of the Thompson’s double slit experiment because it demonstrates the inseparability of the wave and particle properties of particles and felt a complete understanding of quantum mechanics could be gleaned from carefully thinking through its implications.

However it also allows one to understand the physical connection between quantum mechanics and the space-time universe of Einstein.

The double slit experiment is made up of “A coherent source of photons illuminating a screen after passing through a thin plate with two parallel slits cut in it. The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through both slits to interfere, creating an interference pattern of bright and dark bands on the screen. However, at the screen, the light is always found to be absorbed as discrete particles, called photons.

When only one slit is open, the pattern on the screen is a diffraction pattern however, when both slits are open, the pattern is similar but with much more detailed. These facts were elucidated by Thomas Young in a paper entitled “Experiments and Calculations Relative to Physical Optics,” published in 1803. To a very high degree of success, these results could be explained by the method of Huygens–Fresnel principle that is based on the hypothesis that light consists of waves propagated through some medium. However, discovery of the photoelectric effect made it necessary to go beyond classical physics and take the quantum nature of light into account.

It is a widespread misunderstanding that, when two slits are open but a detector is added to determine which slit a photon has passed through, the interference pattern no longer forms and it yields two simple patterns, one from each slit, without interference. However, there ways to determine which slit a photon passed through in which the interference pattern will be changed but not be completely wiped out. For instance, by placing an atom at the position of each slit and monitoring whether one of these atoms is influenced by a photon passing the interference pattern will be changed but not be completely wiped out.

However the most baffling part of this experiment comes when only one photon at a time impacts a barrier with two opened slits because an interference pattern forms which is similar to what it was when multiple photons were impacting the barrier. This is a clear implication the particle called a photon has a wave component, which simultaneously passes through both slits and interferes with itself. (The experiment works with electrons, atoms, and even some molecules too.)”

As was mentioned earlier, one can understand this experiment in term of the physical properties of space-time and Relatively because they tell us wave energy moves continuously through space and time time unless it is prevented from by moving through time by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to be concentrated at the point in space where a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave which this confinement would create can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency. This means the particle quantum mechanic calls a photon would have an extended volume equal to the wavelength associated with its standing wave.(Note the boundaries or “walls” of its confinement would be defined by its wave properties. If an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through time it will be reflected back on itself. However, that reflected wave still cannot move through time therefore it will be reflected back creating a standing wave. Putting it another way wave itself defines its boundaries because if it cannot move though time it MUST STAND in place in the form of a standing wave.)

As was mentioned earlier one can use the above to demonstrate the physical connection between quantum mechanics and the space-time universe of Einstein.

Briefly it shows the reason why the interference pattern remains when one photon at a time is fired at the barrier with both slits open or “the most baffling part of this experiment” is because, as mentioned earlier it is made up of a standing wave therefore it occupies an extended volume which is directly related to its wavelength.

This means a portion of its energy could simultaneously pass both slits, if the diameter of its volume exceeds the separation of the slits and recombine on the other side to generate an interference pattern.  This would occur because wave energy is allowed to move freely through time.

However, when its energy is prevented from moving through time by contacting the screen its energy will be will confined to three-dimensional space causing it to be concentrated in a standing wave that as mentioned earlier would define the particle properties of a photon.

Additionally because the energy of the standing wave which earlier was shown to define a photon is dependent on its frequency the energy of the particle created when it contacts the screen must have the same energy. Therefore, were it appears on the screen will be determined by where the interference of the wave properties from each slit combine to produce enough energy to support its particle properties.

It also explains why the interference pattern disappears, in most cases when a detector is added to determine which slit a photon has passed through. this is because the energy required to measure which one of the two slits it passes through interacts with it causing the wavelength of that portion to change so that it will not have the same resonant characteristics as one that passed through the other slit.  Therefore, the energy passing thought that slit will not be able to interact, in most cases with the energy passing through the other one to form an interference pattern on the screen.

However it also explains why, as was mentioned “there are ways to determine which slit a photon passed through that will cause a change in the interference pattern but will not completely wiped it out.

The fact that the interference pattern can still occur even if a measurement is made is because if the energy passing through one of the two slits is altered by a relatively small amount compared to what it originally was, classical wave mechanics tells us it will be able to interact to form a slightly different resonant system with a slightly different interference pattern on the other side than would be the case if no measurement was taken.

However, this also means there should be a quantifiable minimum value of interaction between a measuring device and a photon that will permit the interference pattern although somewhat altered to be reestablished on the other side after measuring which slit the photon passes through.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Apr. 2021

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 1
2007 thru
2010


Ebook
$8.00


Paper Back
$15.00


The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 2
2011 thru
2014


Ebook
$8.00


Paper Back
$16.00


The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 3
2015 thru
2020


Ebook
$8.00


Paper Back
$18.00

 

The post Thompson’s double slit experiment made easy appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.

Merging the collapse of the wave function with Einstein Theories of Relativity.

The physicist John Wheeler once asked how can one can best describe the reality of quantum mechanics in five words or fewer? he determined the best answer was given by Aatish Bhatia “Don’t look: waves. Look: particles.”  He felt that describes it in “Nutshell” because the wavefunction maintains its mathematical properties until it is observed or interacted with and only after that does it transform or in quantum speak “COLLAPSE” to the physical reality of a particle.

Aatish definition of quantum mechanics demonstrates one of the difficulties in merging quantum mechanics with Einstein’s Relativistic Theories is explaining how and why the act of observing or interacting with the mathematical properties of a quantum environment it to “COLLAPSES” in the form of a particle.

Therefore, one requirement for merging it with Relativity would be to explain how and why observing it transforms its mathematical properties to a physical one of a particle.

One way of doing this is to use the fact that both their evolutions are controlled by a wave. For example, Relativity defines it in terms of the energy propagated by electromagnetic wave while Quantum Mechanics defines it in terms of the mathematical evolution of the wave function.

This suggests the wave function that governs the evolution of a quantum environment may be mathematical representation of the electromagnetic wave that governs the creation of particles in the universe of Relativity. This means we may be able understand the “COLLAPSE” of the wave function and why Don’t look: waves. Look: particles describe quantum reality by looking at how an electromagnetic wave evolves in the space-time environment of Relativity

For example, the science of wave mechanics and Relatively tells us wave energy would move continuously through space-time unless it is prevented from by moving through time by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to be concentrated at the point in space where a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave which this confinement would create can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.

The boundaries or “walls” of its confinement would be defined by its wave properties. If an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through time it will be reflected back on itself. However, that reflected wave still cannot move through time therefore it will be reflected back creating a standing wave. The wave itself defines its boundaries because if it cannot move though time it MUST STAND in place in the form of a standing wave.

 

In other words, this shows one can use the established science of wave mechanics and physical world of Relativity to show why when some looks at a quantum existence it appears as a particle because that act creates boundaries required to create the resonant system which defines one.

This also shows how one can explain the COLLAPSE of the wave function and why Don’t look: waves. Look: particles” describes the quantum world in terms of the evolution of electromagnetic wave in the space-time environment of Relativity.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Mar. 2021

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 1
2007 thru
2010

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$15.00

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 2
2011 thru
2014

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$16.00

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 3
2015 thru
2020

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$18.00

 

 

The post Merging the collapse of the wave function with Einstein Theories of Relativity. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.

Why a singularity cannot not exist exist in a black hole.

In an earlier post An alternative to a singularity? Aug 15 2008 we defined what happens to matter and energy as it falls into a black hole in terms of inertial reference frames. However, we did not attempt to define what happens after that. The reason was because we must use Einstein’s mathematical definitions of the curvature in the geodesics that define how mass and energy move in a space-time environment to do so.  They tells us that it would take an infinite amount of time mass and energy to form singularity after passing through the event horizon of a black hole for the same reason we that observe it to take an infinite amount of time to reach it from the outside.

This is because as mass or energy is added to it the curvature defining its gravitational geodesic in space time expands adding another layer to it. However that does not mean that the matter or energy that is under that layer is free to move towards its center because the gravitational curvature in the geodesic that defines it movement is still there but at a lower gravitational potential. This means any matter or energy that exits at a layer under the event horizon could NOT move towards its center to form a singularity but can only move around the circular geodesic generated by the gravitational potential at that level. However, Einstein’s math tells us would take infinite amount of time to cross to a lower gravitational level. This is similar to the observations involving how matter and energy that tell us it take an infinite amount of time for it move through an event horizon from outside of black hole.

This tells us that either we have misinterpreted the math that tells us that a singular can exist at the center of a black hole or we must rewrite them based on the observations of how mass and energy interact with the event horizon of a black hole. We do not believe we have any other options base on those observations.

So if a singularly is not at the center of a black hole what is.

We know the densest form of observable matter is found in a neutron star where the gravitational forces are strong enough to overcome the forces keeping electrons protons and neutron apart. We also know that a neutron star is capable of becoming a black hole if it absorbs enough mass and energy to become a one. However, that does not mean that it collapses to a singularity. The total energy and therefore the total gravitational potential of the volume of space our solar system occupies consists of the mass and energy of the sun and the planets which are orbiting it. This observation suggests that the total mass in the volume of space occupied by a black hole maybe made up of the components of neutron star and the mass that as was show above would be orbiting it on the gravitational geodesic created by it. These observations of our solar system suggest that the central core of a black hole is NOT a singularity but the remnants of neutron star whose gravitational potential has been increase enough by the mass and energy that is orbiting in the gravitational geodesic created by it to form one.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Mar. 2021

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 1
2007 thru
2010

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$15.00

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 2
2011 thru
2014

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$16.00

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 3
2015 thru
2020

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$18.00

 

 

The post Why a singularity cannot not exist exist in a black hole. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.

Articles posted in 2021

Articles posted in 2020, 2019, 2017 and 18, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007

Preface

The purpose of this blog is to elaborate on the theoretical ideas contained in its companion book “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions”

in Thomas S. Kuhn’s book “The Structure of Scientific Revolution” he documents the doubts that precipitate a paradigm change in scientific thought.

For example, even though one could still make accurate predictions of planetary motions using the 15 century geocentric models it became increasing more difficult to integrate that concept with the more accurate observational data provided by the new technologies of that day. This resulted in some scientists questioning their validity.

He suggests the doubt generated by its persistent inability of to explain new data lead many scientists of that period to adopt the simpler rules of the revolutionary heliocentric model.

Modern physics appears to be on the verge of a similar revolution because the discoveries of dark matter and dark energy are extremely difficult to integrate into its current theoretical models.

As Thomas S. Kuhn points out failure of an existing paradigm is a prelude to the search for a new one.

It continues the search, began in its companion book the “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions” to not only explain how one can seamlessly integrate the observations of dark matter and dark energy into a theoretical model based on the existence of four *spatial* dimensions but to provide a unifying mechanism responsible for the four forces of nature (gravity, electromagnetism, the weak, and strong) governing the interactions of matter, energy, space, and time.

Each article covers one aspect of a search for the “reality” it defines. For example, the article “What is dark energy” defines its casually in terms of an interaction of three-dimensional space with a fourth while others derive the quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass in terms of a resonant system formed by a matter wave on a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

It is not meant to verify the many answers found in the book “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions”. Instead it is meant to give the scientific community the specific information and experiment techniques required to either verify or falsify it contents. It relies less on mathematics and more on conceptual logic and thought experiments (much like Albert Einstein did) to show how one can explain and predict all modern observations by extrapolating the rules defining classical three-dimensional space to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2020

“The universe’s most powerful enabling tool is not knowledge or understanding but imagination because it extends the reality of one’s environment.”

 

 

Topic

Date posted

catorgory

Author


Einstein’s explanation of mass and why it is resistance to a change in motion

May 1, 2021

Theoretical

Jeff

Can entanglement tell us why the universe is what it is?

Apr. 15, 2021

Theoretical

Jeff

Thompson’s double slit experiment made easy

Apr. 1, 2021

Theoretical

Jeff

Merging the collapse of the wave function with Einstein Theories of Relativity

Mar. 12, 2021

Theoretical

Jeff

Why a singularity cannot not exist exist in a black hole.

Mar. 6, 2021

Theoretical

Jeff

Could Black holes be responsible for the expansion period in our universe’s history?

Jan.1,2021

Theoretical

Jeff

Articles posted in2019, 2017 and 18, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007

 

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 1
2007 thru
2010

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$15.00

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 2
2011 thru
2014

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$16.00

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 3
2015 thru
2020

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$18.00

 

 

The post Articles posted in 2021 appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.

Could Black holes be responsible for the expansion period in our universe’s history?

Cosmologists have not yet been able to determine if the universe will keep on expanding or enter a contraction phase but if it does it will generate a lot of heat. I wonder what effect that heat would have on a black hole. My intuition is that the smaller ones may just dissolve or return the ions they are made up of back to space but the larger ones MAY I repeat MAY exploded like a kernel of popcorn. The heat created by this expulsion would cascade to other black holes causing them to explode in rapid succession. The energy released by a single one would only result in a small increase in the rate of the universe expansion. However, the explosions of large numbers over a short period of time COULD result in a very rapid expansion that might approach that of the inflationary model based on the expansion of a singularity.

Some will probably say that is it crazy to assume that a black hole can explode however I think it is crazier to assume that the explosion of a single one-dimensional point called a singularity can result in the observables properties of our universe.

One advantage to basing an inflationary model on the explosions of black holes is that it defines a mechanism for the start of the inflationary period in terms of an observable properties of our universe. Additionally, one can, through observations estimate the total energy content of all of the black holes in universe AT THE TIME OF ITS COLLAPSE based on how many presently exist. This would allow one to estimate the rate of the universe’s inflationary expansion caused by a rapid release of their energy.

To determine if this IDEA is viable solution one would have to first determine if heat can cause a black hole to explode. If it can one could use their observable properties to mathematically quantify the temperature required for that to occur. We can also estimate the maximum temperature the complete collapse of the universe would attain. If that value is greater than the temperature required to cause a black hole to explode it would add creditability to the above IDEA. After that it should be possible to determine rate at which the energy of the explosion of a single black hole will ripple through rest and cause them to explode. Since, as was mentioned earlier because we can estimate, based on observations the total energy of all of the black holes in our observable universe AT THE TIME OF ITS COLLAPSE we mathematically determine rate at which energy is released and therefore the rate of the universe’s expansion at each point in its evolution.

In other words, it allows us to define an inflationary period in our universe’s evolution based on the mathematical analysis of the observable properties of our environment instead of the unobservable properties of a quantum singularity.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Jan. 2021

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 1
2007 thru
2010

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$15.00

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 2
2011 thru
2014

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$16.00

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 3
2015 thru
2020

Ebook
$8.00

Paper Back
$18.00

 

 

The post Could Black holes be responsible for the expansion period in our universe’s history? appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.

What is Dark Matter? A simple answer Einstein would have liked.

December 15th 2020 at 07:42

Dark Matter is a form of matter which is thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe and the remaining is made up visible or baryonic matter. Its presence is implied in a variety of astrophysical observations, including the gravitational affects has on the orbits of stars in galaxies which cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity unless more matter is present than can be seen. The reason it is called dark because it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field, which means it does not absorb, reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation, which is why it is difficult to detect.

However, we disagree that it cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity because Einstein defined gravity in terms of the “depth” of a gravity well or distortion in the “surface” of space-time caused by the energy density of an environment and NOT on existence of visible or baryonic matter. This means the energy of electromagnetic fields, photons and all other forms of energy along with that associated with visible matter must be taken consideration when determining the energy density of space and therefore ITS gravitational potential.

This suggest the reason it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field is because a large part of it is an electromagnetic field.

However, the observation that electromagnetic energy prevents the gravitational collapse of the visible matter in stars suggests that its gravitational potential is oppositely directed with respect to it.

Some might say, if that were true it should have the same effect on the orbits of planets as it does on stars in galaxies. The reason it DOES NOT is because, as was just mentioned with it opposes that of visible matter which prevents it from sinking to the bottom of a star’s gravity well.

One can understand why by using an analogy of a jar containing water and oil where the water represents electromagnetic energy while the oil represents that of visible matter. The water prevents the oil from sinking to the bottom because its directional energy is opposite or is more buoyant than the water. This would be analogous to how the heat associated with electromagnetic energy prevents the visible matter in stars from sinking to the bottom of their gravity well. In other words, the energy density of electromagnetic energy offsets that of the visible matter.

However, as was mentioned earlier Einstein defined gravity in terms of the “depth” of a gravity well or distortion in the “surface” of space-time caused by the energy density of an environment NOT on existence of visible of baryonic matter.

Therefore, to determine the total gravitation potential or depth of the gravity well of a solar system one must add the energy density associated with both electromagnetic energy and its visible matter.

However, to define the gravitational potential on objects which are gravitational bound to a star one would have to use only the visible matter because as mentioned earlier electromagnetic energy offsets that of the visible matter. Therefore, any objects gravitational bound to a star would only experience the gravitational potential of the visible matter because the gravity well of the entire solar system is offset by the electromagnetic energy.

However, one can also use the example of the jar mentioned earlier to understand why stars orbiting in galaxies are affected by both the energy density of electromagnetic energy and visible matter. One outside the jar would add the height of the oil to the water to get its total height while from the inside one would measure it from the oil water line. Similarly. if one views the gravity well from an object orbiting a solar system one would have to use only the energy contributed by the visible matter. However, if one viewed it form an object that was NOT gravitationally bound to it one would have to measure the contribution provided by both the visible matter and electromagnetic energy.

This also tells us any form of energy that counteracts that of visible matter must also be consider a component of the Dark Matter. For example, the orbital of the stars in a galactic would have to be included because it also adds to the energy density of the space they occupy. In other words, not only do you have to add the energy density contributed by electromagnetic energy to that of the visible matter in stars but you must also add the orbital energy of both the visible matter and their electromagnetic component to determine its content in galaxies. Additionally, the fact that galaxies are gravitational bound in galactic clusters means you must also consider the energy density contributed by their rotational energy to determine the universe’s total Dark mater component.

However, the OBSERVATION that electromagnetic energy offsets the gravitational potential of the visible matter in stars tells us it must contribute AT LEAST an equal amount to universe’s total gravitational potential. The remaining Dark matter could be provided by the energy density contributed by dust, helium atoms, black holes along their orbital energy.

It should be remembered; Einstein defined the depth of a gravity well in space in terms of the absolute value of its energy density. Therefore, to determine the total gravitational potential of both Dark and visible matter one must include all forms of energy including visible matter, to determine their value.

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Incorporating gravity into Quantum electrodynamics

November 22nd 2020 at 07:37

Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.  In essence, it describes how light and matter interact and is the first theory where full agreement between quantum mechanics and special relativity is achieved. QED mathematically describes all phenomena involving electrically charged particles interacting by means of exchange of photons and represents the quantum counterpart of classical electromagnetism giving a complete account of matter and light interaction.

However, as of yet no one has been able to integrate gravity into its theoretical structure.

Yet one can use the wave properties of a quantum field to explain how Einstein’s definition of gravity in his General Theory of Relativity can be used to accomplish that.

Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity explains gravity as a distortion of space-time caused by the presence of matter or energy while defining its magnitude in terms of the concentration of matter or energy in a given volume of space-time

Therefore, to incorporate Quantum field into Einstein General Theory of Relativity one must explain how the interaction of a photon with electrically charge particles causes a distortion in space-time associates with gravity.

As was mentioned earlier QED defines the interaction of charged particles in terms of the exchange of photons.  However, it defines the exchange of photons in terms of the electromagnetic wave properties of a quantum field.

However, one can use the wave definition of that quantum field to define how it interacts with field properties of Einstein General Theory of Relativity to create the distortion in space-time that defines gravity.

For example, the photonic properties of an electromagnetic wave can be defined by extrapolating the laws of classical resonance in a three-dimensional environment to an electromagnetic wave on a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a time dimension.

This is because one can showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as its natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in an environment consisting of four-dimensional space-time.

The existence of four-dimensional space-time would give an energy wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" the third spatial dimension with respect to the time dimension thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.

These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.

The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established space.

Therefore, these oscillations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold would meet the requirements mentioned above for the formation of a resonant system or "structure" in four-dimensional space-time if one extrapolated them to that environment.

Classical wave mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.

Hence, these resonant systems in four-dimensional space-time would be responsible for photonic properties of a quantum field.

Yet one can also define how and why an electromagnetic wave interacts with charge particles terms of the physical properties of space-time to create the resonant structure associated with photonic properties of a quantum field.

For example, in our three-dimensional world, a point on the two-dimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to three-dimensional space.

However, the edge of the paper provides a boundary that reflects those oscillation back on itself, thereby creating a resonant wave on the surface of the paper.

Similarly, an electromagnetic wave in three-dimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate “up” or “down” while moving through time.

However, if it is prevented from moving thought time by interacting with an electrically charged particle its wave energy will be reflected back on itself, thereby concentrating it in a resonant standing wave on the "surface" three-dimensional space with respect to the time dimension.

As was mentioned earlier, Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity explains gravity as a distortion of space-time caused by the presence of matter or energy.  While defining its magnitude in terms of the concentration of matter or energy in a given volume of space-time.

In other words, one can integrate gravity with Quantum electrodynamics definition of how matter interact with light in terms of how that interaction results in increase the energy density in the volume of space-time where that interaction takes place.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Nov 2020

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Gravity time dilation and a simple explanation of Dark Energy

November 12th 2020 at 09:26

Recently observations have suggested a force called Dark Energy is needed to account for the fact the expansion of the universe is accelerating. However. that may be an illusion created by the effect gravity has on time.

Einstein told us and it has been observed the rate at which time is perceived to move is slower in all environments where the gravitational potential is greater with respect where it is being observed. This means the further we look back in time, where universe gravitational potential of the more densely pack matter was greater the estimate of its rate of expansion would be less than it actually was if those effects were not taken into consideration. In other words, if one had not considered the Relativistic slowing of time caused by its gravitational potential that rate would be faster in the past than the present value suggests.

However, we also know the gravitational potential has a slowing effect on the universe’s expansion and because that potential decreases as its volume increase, its expansion rate also decreases. In other words, as the universe expands the slowing effect of gravity has on it decreases.

Putting it another way, the rate of universe’s expansion would to appear to occur more rapidly than it actually did from the perspective of present due to the effect gravity has on time while its actual rate would decline due to its gravitational potential as the universe expands.

Therefore, to determine its actual rate of expansion at each point in its history one must not only take into account the gravitational effect on time that would make it appear that it was slower that it actual was but one must also consider how gravity actually causes its expansion rate to decrease.

Yet, because of the non-linear effects between the slowing of time created by universe’s gravitational potential with respect to effects it has on its rate of expansion there will be a point in its history where one will APPEAR to overtake the other.

IN OTHER WORDS, IT IS POSSIBLE THE OBSERVATIONS SUGGESTING THE UNIVERSE EXPANSION IS ACCELERATING MAY BE THE RESULT OF THE FACT THE GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL OF THE UNIVERSE CAUSES TIME TO APPEAR MOVE SLOWER IN THE PAST THAN IT ACTUALLY DID.

This gives us a way of validating if the gravitational potential and the slowing effect it has on time is what gives us the IMPRESSION the expansion of the universe is accelerating because it has been observed that about 4 billion years ago the universe’s expansion appears to have change from decelerating to an accelerated phase.

This because one can calculate its actual expansion rate by determining how much time would have appeared to move slower due to the differential gravitational potential between the past and present and use that value to determine its actual rate. If it was found that about 4 billion years ago the effect the slowing of time on our perception of its past expansion rate is less than slowing effect gravity would have on, it would appear as if that rate was accelerating even though it was still decelerating.

Some may say the slowing of time slowing would not affect the timing of the expansion because it is also expanding. However, Einstein define the time dilation only in terms of the affects a differential gravitational potential has on it therefore an expanding universe would not affect it. Some may also say that because the universe is expanding the gravitational potential is expanding and weakening at the same rate therefore when we look back the effects it will have on the timing of its expansion will cancel. However, Einstein tells us the timing of events that cause the universe to expand is locked in the past along with its gravitational potential at the time the expansion took place. Therefore, one must take into account the differential gravitational potential between the past and present universe when defining its expansion.

Some have also suggested Relativistic properties space have already been accounted for in the Friedman model that was used in part by scientist to define the accelerated expansion of the universe. However, that is NOT the case because when someone in the past measures the rate of change in the universe’s expansion rate he would NOT need to use it because his entire spatial slice of the universe would be at the same gravitational potential. However this would NOT be the case for someone looking at that spatial slice from the future. He would have to use it because due to the expansion of the universe a differential gravitational potential would have developed between the past and the present. But as the universe expands the rate of change of its expansion will slow because the gravitational density of the universe has decreased while at the same time the relativistic effects defined by Friedman model will also decreased because of the decrease in gravitation density between the past and present. Yet the relativistic properties of space tell us from the perspective of the present the rate of the universe’s expansion is moving faster than it actually is from the perspective of someone who is present at the time when that expansion was taking place. In other words, Friedman equation defines how the rate of the rate of universe’s expansion changes due to a differential gravitational density between a past and present but it does not define the actual rate of from the perspective of someone who was measuring it from his spatial slice. Therefore, to define the ACTUAL rate at which the expansion of the universe is changing from one point to the next one must determine how the change in gravitational densely effects it from the perspective of an observer at each point in its history and NOT with respect to observer who is looking back at it from the present as the Friedman equation does.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Nov. 2020

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Understanding the dynamics of the uncertainty principle in terms of space time

Quantum mechanics states what the universe is made of while not giving an explanation of why it is that way while Relativity gives us an explanation of why it is what it is but does not tell us what is it made of. For example, the quantum world is defined by the mathematical properties of the wave function which define the evolution of wave-particle duality of existence while defining their interactions in terms the uncertainty principal which states one cannot precisely measure the properties of Conjugate pairs such as the momentum or position of a particle with complete accuracy. However, it does not give an explanation of what existence is or how it interacts with its environment to create the universe we live in.

On the other hand, Relativity explains the existence of the universe and the particles it contains in terms of an interaction between space and time without telling us what wave-particle duality of existence is or how it interacts with it to create the uncertainty principal.

Therefore, to understand the dynamics of the uncertainty principle in terms of space-time we must first establish a physical connection between the mathematical evolution of the wave function and the properties of the space-time. This can be accomplished because in Relativity the evolution of space-time is defined in terms of an electromagnetic wave while, as was mentioned earlier the wave function defines how a quantum environment evolves to the point where it is observed.

This commonality suggests the wave function could be a mathematical representation of an electromagnetic wave in space-time. This means to derive the uncertainty principle in terms of space-time one must physically connect it to an electromagnetic wave.

(Einstein defined the medium responsible for the propagation an electromagnetic wave through space-time when he derived gravitational energy in terms of a curvature in it. This is because it shows the alternating physical curvatures caused by peak and valleys of a wave through its geometry can support its movement.)

One can connect them because the science of wave mechanics and Relatively tells us an electromagnetic wave moves continuously through space-time unless it is prevented from moving through time by someone or something interacting with it. This would result in it being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause the energy of an electromagnetic wave to be concentrated at the point in space were a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency that the wave function associates with a particle.

As was mentioned earlier the mathematical properties of the wave functions defines the evolution of a quantum system in terms of its wave particle duality. However, as was shown above one can understand why if one assumes that it represents an electromagnetic wave in a space-time because similar to the wave function if it is prevented from evolving through space by an observation it presents itself as a particle.

Yet, it also tells us why, similar to the evolution of an electromagnetic wave if unobserved it will continue evolve through the mathematical universe defined by quantum mechanics.

In other words, it shows how one can understand the evolution of wave-particle duality of a quantum existence by comparing it to the evolution of an electromagnetic wave in space-time

Next, we must explain how quantum mechanics definition of a particle in terms of a one-dimensional point is responsible for the validity of the uncertainty principal.

Relativity and the science of wave mechanics tell us the energy of the standing wave which earlier defined a particle would be distributed over a volume of space-time that corresponds to is wavelength. However, to accurately determine its momentum or position one must be able to determine where those measurement are taken with respect to energy volume of the system it occupies.

Yet, to measure momentum of a particle in the quantum world one must determine time it takes to move between two points in the mathematical field with respect to the volume of system being measured. Therefore, they will be an inherent uncertainty if one cannot determine where with respect to it those points are.

The fact that both of these theories assume that energy or information of a system can nether be created or destroy provides the basis for the connecting the uncertainty principal to the space-time environment of relativity.

THIS IS BECAUSE THE FACT THE MEASUREMENT OF MONUMENT OR POSITION DOES NOT CHANGE THE TOTAL QUANTITY OF INFORMATION OR ENERGY IN A SYSTEM TELL US THE MEASUREMENT OF ONE WILL AFFECT THE OTHER.

Quantum mechanics defines both moment and position with respect to a one-dimensional point in the mathematical field of the wave function. However, the accuracy of the information as to where that point is in relation to its information volume is directly related to how much of it is taken from the system. This means the more accurate the measurement the more information regarding it must be removed from the system and the less is available to measure the other component of its Conjugate pair

For example, as was mentioned earlier because the information volume of a system remains constant the more of it is taken out regarding its momentum will result in there will being less to define its position. This makes the determination of its position more uncertain because there is less information left in its volume to define its position. While the more information taken out of it regarding its position will result in there being less to define its momentum. This makes this determination of its momentum more uncertain because less information left in that volume to define it. This would be true for all Conjugate pairs.

However, the same would be true in a relativistic system because its energy is must be conserved when its position or momentum is measured. Therefore because, the accuracy of a measurement is directly related to the amount to energy taken out of a system; the measurement of each component of a Conjugate pairs will effect the other. For example the added energy required to make a more accurate measurement of a systems momentum will result in there being less to define its position. This makes the determination of its position more uncertain because there is less energy in that system to define it. While the more additional energy required to make a more accurate measurement of its position will result in there being less to define its momentum. This makes this determination of its momentum more uncertain because less energy left in the system to define it.

This shows how one can understand and physically connect the uncertainty principal as defined by quantum mechanics to the space time environment define by Einstein.

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Why the future is what it is

Classical physics is causal; complete knowledge of the past allows for the computation of the future. Likewise, complete knowledge of the future allows precise computation of the past.

Not so in Quantum Physics. Objects are neither particles nor waves; they are a strange combination of both. Given complete knowledge of the past, we can make only probabilistic predictions of the future.past_and_future

In other words, classical mechanics tells us that only one future exists while quantum mechanics tells us that due to its probabilistic interpretation of wave-particle duality of existence, many different ones simultaneously exist and which one become a reality is determined by observation.  Additionally, it states that they are randomly disturbed throughout existence.

On the surface these probabilistic and causal definitions of the future appear to incompatible.

However, that may not be the case.

As mentioned earlier, one of the things that separate the future associated with classical physics from probabilistic one of quantum mechanical is one tell us all of the probable future outcomes of an observation exist while the other which based on causality tells us there in only one.

However, when we role dice in a casino most do not think there are six of them out there waiting for the dice to tell us which one we will occupy after the roll.  This is because the probability of getting a six is related to its physical interaction with properties of the table in the casino where it is rolled. This means the probability of getting a six is determined by the physical properties of the dice and the casino it occupies.  In other words, the probabilities associated with a roll of the dice does not define the future of the casino the casino defines the future of the dice.

Similarly, just because Quantum mechanics defines outcome of an observation in terms of probabilities would not mean all the of the predicted futures exist if the probability of a specific outcome is caused by a physical interaction of the wave-particle duality of existence with the universe it occupies.  In other words, like the dice, it is possible the wave-particle duality of existence does not define the future of the universe the universe defines the future of its wave-particle component.

However, to understand how this is possible one would have to show the probability of a specific outcome of an observation is related to the interaction of the wave-particle duality of existence and the space it occupies.

For example, in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007 it was shown the wave-particle duality of existence defined by quantum mechanics can be derived by extrapolating the laws of classical resonance in a three-dimensional environment to an energy wave on a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a time dimension.

Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as its natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in an environment consisting of four-dimensional space-time.

The existence of four-dimensional space-time would give an energy wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" the third spatial dimension with respect to the time dimension thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.

These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.

The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established space.

Therefore, these oscillations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold would meet the requirements mentioned above for the formation of a resonant system or "structure" in four-dimensional space-time if one extrapolated them to that environment.

Classical mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.

Hence, these resonant systems in four-dimensional space-time would be responsible for particle property of existence in the space-time environment of Einstein.

Yet one can also define the boundary conditions responsible for a creating the resonant system or "structure" that earlier defined a particle.

For example, in our three-dimensional world, a point on the two-dimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to three-dimensional space.

However, the edge of the paper provides a boundary that reflects those oscillation back on itself, thereby creating a resonant wave on the surface of the paper.

Similarly, an energy wave of three-dimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate “up” or “down” while moving through time.

However, when it is prevented from moving thought time either by being observed or encountering an object or particle that wave energy will be reflected back on itself, thereby creating a resonant wave on the "surface" three-dimensional space,

In other words, if the wave component of quantum existence is prevented from moving unhindered through time either by an observation or by an interaction with a particle or object it will create a resonant system or structure that defined the quantum properties of existence in the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?".

This shows how, one can derive the wave-particle duality of quantum existence in terms of an interaction of space with time.

The final step in answering the question of why the future is what it is requires one to show how the quantum mechanical wave-particle duality of existence interacts with space to create the future in terms of probabilities.

One can use the analogy of energy of a vibrating or oscillating ball on a rubber diaphragm and how the magnitude of those vibrations would would be greatest at the focal point of those vibrations and decrease as one move away from them.

Similarly, if the assumption that wave properties of a quantum existence represents vibrations or oscillations in a "surface" of three-dimensional space, is correct the magnitude of those oscillations would be greatest at the focal point of and decreases as one moves away from it.

However, as the article, mentioned earlier “Why is energy/mass quantized?” showed the particle property of existence is a result of a resonant structure formed on the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold by its interaction with the time dimension.

Yet the science of Wave Mechanics tells us resonance would most probably occur on the surface of the rubber sheet were the magnitude of the vibrations is greatest and would diminish as one move away from that point.

Similarly, the resonant structure that article associated with a particle property of existence would most probably be found were the magnitude of the vibrations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold is greatest and would diminish as one move away from that point.

In other words, one can define the future of the quantum mechanical wave-particle duality of existence in terms a causal interaction between it and the universe it occupies.

Additionally, this shows why defining the outcome of an observation of the wave-particle duality of existence as quantum mechanics does in terms of probabilities does not mean all the of those predicted futures exist.  This is because similar to the dice mentioned earlier the probability of a specific future is caused by a physical interaction of it with the universe it occupies.

In other words, the reason why the future is what it is is because the wave-particle duality of existence does not define the future of the universe the universe defines the future of its wave-particle component.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2020

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Deriving quantum gravity in terms of properties of space time.

September 25th 2020 at 08:03

As the Scientific American article “Is Gravity Quantum?” tell us quantum mechanics suggests everything is made of quanta, or packets of energy, that can behave like both a particle and a wave as define in terms of the mathematics of the the wave function. For instance, quanta of light are called photons. Detecting gravitons, the hypothetical quanta of gravity, would prove gravity is quantum. The problem is that gravity is extraordinarily weak and therefore detecting them is extremely difficult.

Einstein, on the other hand defines gravity terms of the a curvature in space-time caused by its energy density while using light or the properties of electromagnetic waves in the equation E=mc^2 to define the mass equivalent of the energy.

Therefore, to derive quantum gravity in terms of space-time one must first establish a physical connection between the mathematical evolution of the wave function and the properties of the space-time. This can be accomplished because in Relativity the evolution of space-time is defined in terms of an electromagnetic wave while, as was mentioned earlier the wave function is what defines the evolution of gravitons.

This commonality suggests the wave function could be a mathematical representation of an electromagnetic wave in space-time. This means to derive quantum gravity in terms of space-time one must physically connect it to an electromagnetic wave.

(Einstein defined the medium responsible for the propagation an electromagnetic wave through space-time when he derived gravitational energy in terms of a curvature in it. This is because it shows the alternating physical curvatures caused by peak and valleys of a wave through its geometry can support its movement.)

One can accomplish this by using the science of wave mechanics and the concepts of Einstein’s theories to define both the energy density of space responsible of gravity and the particle properties of mass and the graviton as defined by quantum mechanics in terms of an electromagnetic in space time.

For example, the science of wave mechanics along with the fact Relatively tells us the energy of an electromagnetic wave moves continuously through space-time unless it is prevented from doing so by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanic also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to COLLAPSE thereby increasing the energy density at the point where that collapse occurred. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency. Therefore any changes in that energy density must also be quantized.

This shows if one assumes the wave function is a mathematical representation of an electromagnetic wave in space-time one can explain quantum gravity and why its is made of gravitons or quanta of energy in terms of physical properties of space time. This is because, as was show above if an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through it either by being observed or interacting with something its energy collapses to what quantum mechanics calls graviton. This would make a quantum increase in the energy density of space where the collapse occurred and therefore would make a quantum increase the curvature in space-time that relativity defines as the gravity. Additionally it tells us the curvature in space time which Relativity defines as being the causality of gravity is not continuous but quantized because the energy density that creates its can only be increased or decreased in the quantized units defined by the mathematics of the wave function.

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The Physics of Reality

September 8th 2020 at 14:06

There is no one realty because each individual creates one that is unique to him or her in an attempt to organize the physical or classical world through information gathered by the senses.  However, physicists have been given the task of defining a universal explanation of it obtained through, in a large part instrumentation and mathematics. One could say one say "The Physics of Reality" is the science that attempts to define a universal reality or one that most can agree on by integrating the information provided by instrumentation and mathematics to that provided by the senses.

For example, cosmologists use telescopes to determine how our universe came to be because it allows them to observe an environment that is too far away to stimulate our sense of sight. They then attempt, in most cases to use mathematics to organized and provide an explanation of how both, the one that directly available to the sense and the one seen through telescopes appear the way they do. The reasons mathematics is the primary tool use by physicists is because many feel it is the only tool that can accurately describe the physical steps involved in defining what we see through both the senses and telescopes.

However, even though mathematics can be used to provide an explanation for the physical reality of the universe it can never replace the reality is it defining. This is because, as was mentioned earlier each person defines his or her reality in terms of the information he or she receive about physical world through the senses.  However, all mathematics is abstract in nature, therefore, it does not have a presence in the physical world and because of that it cannot be part of the one that interacts with the senses.

Some may disagree and try to tell you that the mathematics is the reality because they feel it is the only way to describe what the senses tell them about how the world is organized.  This belief is widely held by the proponents of quantum mechanics because they believe that it is the only way to describe the observations of a quantum environment

For example, many feel the entanglement of some particles which the mathematics of quantum mechanics predicts and observations have confirmed is at the heart of the disparity between classical reality and the quantum one because it is one of the features that is lacking in a classical world.

In the classical environment the one that encompass our senses we only observe objects interacting when they make physical contact. However, quantum mechanics predicts that particles which are entanglement can interact with each other regardless of how far apart they are.

Yet, the fact that many experiments have verified that two particles that are not in physical contact can interact with each other have led some to say that we must replace the classical reality of our senses with the mathematical one of quantum mechanics because they both cannot be right.  However, because entanglement has been observed the mathematics of quantum mechanics many bel should replace the physical reality of our sensory environment.

However, Einstein provided an alternative by giving a us explanation in terms his Special Theory Relativity for the how and why two particles become entangled that is also supported by the classical or physical world of the senses.

As was mentioned earlier many experiments have verified, most using polarized photons that entanglement does occur.  However, Einstein showed us that this is not because some mathematical equation defines its properties but because his theories tell us that photons which are moving at the speed of light can never be separated with respect to an external observer no matter how far apart he or she perceives them to be.

This is because he tells that that there are no preferred reference frames by which one can measure distance. Therefore, one must not only view the separation of a photon with respect to an observer who was external to them but must also look at that separation from a photon’s perspective.

Yet, his theory also tells the distance between the two objects A and B would be defined by their relative speed with respect to an observer.

Specifically, he told us that it would be defined by

However, because according to the concepts of relativity, one can view the photons as being stationary and the observers as moving at the velocity of light the distance or length between the two points use to take the measurement confirm entanglement from the perspective of photons moving at the speed of will be zero in the observer’s reference frame. Therefore, according to Einstein’s theory the entanglement of photon’s is not due to the mathematics of quantum mechanics but due to the relativistic properties of the classical world of the senses.  In other words, from the perspective of two entangle photons they are still are still connected even though they appear to an observer to be physical separated.

However, coming to that conclusion does not require us to deny the existence of the physicality of the reality encompassed by our sense.

As was mentioned earlier, each individual creates his or her own reality based on the information he or she receive from physical world through the senses.  Therefore, because the information regarding the relationship between velocity and length is readily available to the senses is would be integral part of their reality.  However, the abreact properties of the equations of quantum mechanics that predict entanglement are not and therefore are not part of the reality available to the senses.

For example, the effect velocity has on time and length has been confirmed by atomic clocks placed in airplanes as well as orbiting satellites by comparing them to those on the ground.  Therefore, the explanation given above of the causality of entanglement in terms of Einstein theories is observable part of the physical world that the senses use to define reality.

Therefore, one could say difference between the reality defined by the mathematics of Einstein and those of quantum mechanics is that his theories gives each individual a way of integrating his explanation of entanglement with their sensory information obtained through the use of atomic clocks in airplanes whereas the purely abstract mathematical explanation of it that quantum mechanics does not.

As was mentioned earlier "The Physics of Reality" is the science that attempts to define a universal explanation of it or one that most can agree on by integrating the information provided instrumentation and mathematics to that provided by the senses.  Therefore, because Einstein’s mathematics provides an explanation of entanglement in part by using the senses to directly observe instruments such as an atomic clock along with the mathematics of his theory shouldn’t we consider his explanation more creditable or real that the one provided by quantum mechanics.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2020

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Everything should be made as simple as possible

But not simpler. 

One of the difficulties in merging quantum mechanics with Einstein’s Relativistic Theories is its predictive powers are based on the assumption the physical evolution of space and time determines the future while quantum mechanics defines it only in terms the evolution of the mathematical properties of the wave function.

To begin we should start with one of the most basic aspects of the wave function that defines Quantum reality

The physicist John Wheeler asked how can one best define that reality in five words or fewer? he determined the best answer was given by Aatish Bhatia “Don’t look: waves. Look: particles.” That’s quantum mechanics in a nutshell.”

This suggests that we must explain why Don’t look: waves. Look: particles defines the reality of a quantum environment in terms of the physical evolution of space and time.

On way of doing this is to use the fact that both their evolutions are controlled by a wave. For example, Relativity defines it in terms of the energy propagated by electromagnetic wave while Quantum Mechanics defines it in terms of the mathematical evolution of the wave function.

(Einstein provided a mechanism for the propagation an electromagnetic wave through space-time when he defined gravitational energy in terms of a curvature in it.  This means one can define the propagation of energy associated it in terms of the alternating curvatures of the peak and valleys of one as it moves it.)

This suggests the wave function that governs the evolution of a quantum environment may be mathematical represented by the electromagnetic wave that governs evolution in the world of Relativity. This means we may be able understand why Don’t look: waves. Look: particles describes quantum reality by looking at how an electromagnetic wave evolves in the space-time environment of Relativity

For example, the science of wave mechanics and Relatively tells us wave energy would move continuously through space-time unless it is prevented from by moving through time by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to be concentrated at the point in space where a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave which this confinement would create can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.

In other words, this shows one can use the established science of wave mechanics and physical world of Relativity to show why when some looks at quantum existence it appears as a particle because that act creates boundaries required to create the resonant system which defines it.

This also shows how one can merge the explanation of quantum mechanics given above of Don’t look: waves. Look: particles” in terms of the evolving space-time environment of Relativity.

For example, it explains why the act of looking at a quantum environment creates the confinement required for the creation of a standing energy wave in three-dimensional space which, as shown above is responsible for the quantize properties of particles in a quantum world.

Yet, if no one is looking the wave properties of that environment will be predominant because it is free to move until they are observed and then they will revert to the back their particle properties.

This shows how one can understand the validity of describing quantum mechanics as “Don’t look: waves. Look: particles” in terms of a deterministic evolutionary processes in a space-time environment.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2020

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The spatial orientation of gravity and electromagnetism

What makes gravitational force different from those of electromagnetism is that gravity acts along the perpendicular axis of space-time while electromagnetic forces acts in the two-dimensional plane that is perpendicular to gravity.  This is the reason why gravity only acts in one direction attractive while that of electromagnetic can act in two directions, attractive and repulsive because it has the freedom to move along that two dimensional plane.

Einstein had difficulty in understanding how derive to the forces of electromagnetic as they moved through space in terms of his space-time model as was documented by the American Institute of Physics.

From before 1920 until his death in 1955, Einstein struggled to find laws of physics far more general than any known before. In his theory of relativity, the force of gravity had become an expression of the geometry of space and time. The other forces in nature, above all the force of electromagnetism, had not been described in such terms. But it seemed likely to Einstein that electromagnetism and gravity could both be explaneed as aspects of some broader mathematical structure. The quest for such an explanation — for a unified field theory that would unite electromagnetism and gravity, space and time, all together — occupied more of Einstein’s years than any other activity.

However, the reason is NOT that his theories could not support electromagnetism but more likely because time moves only one direction forward similar to how gravity only moves in one direction attractive.  However, electromagnetism "moves" in two direction attractive and repulsive therefore it is difficult to understand how one directional properties of time could be responsible for it.

Yet Einstein gave us an easier way to see how and why his space time model can be linked to the positive and negative forces associated with electromagnetism when he used the constant velocity of light to define geometric properties of forces in a space-time environment  This is because that would allow one to convert a unit of time in his four-dimensional space-time universe to a unit of space in a universe consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.  Additionally, because the velocity of light is constant it is possible to define a one to one correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.

In other words, by mathematically defining the geometric properties of time in his space-time universe in terms of the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of define the time-based components in terms of its equivalent in only four spatial dimensions.

The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the displacement associated energy in a space-time environment in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is one bases for assuming, as was done in the article  Defining energy? Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy including gravitational and electromagnetism can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in any "surface" or plane of three-dimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

This allows one to form a physical image of how electromagnetic forces can be both attractive and repulsive in terms of the differential force caused by the "peaks" and "toughs" of an energy wave moving in the three-dimensional plane with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension that is perpendicular to gravity’s.

For example, Classical wave mechanics tells us a wave on the two-dimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.  A force is developed by that differential displacement of the surfaces, which will result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or become "attracted" to each other and the surface of the water.

Similarly, it tells us an energy wave on the three-dimensional plane with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension that is perpendicular to gravity would cause a point on that plane to become displaced or "elevated and depressed" with respect to the equilibrium point that existed before that wave was present.

However, it also tells us a force will be developed by those differential displacements in the plane that was perpendicular to gravity that will result in its "elevated and depressed" portions moving towards or become "attracted" to each other as the wave moves through space.

This defines the causality of the attractive forces of unlike charges associated with the electromagnetic field in terms of the force developed by the differential displacements of a point on the three-dimensional plane that is perpendicular to gravity.

However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding repelling forces of electromagnetism because observations of water show that there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of a displacement in its surface to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.

Similarly, the magnitude of a displacement on a three-dimensional plane with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension caused by two similar charges will be greater than that caused by a single one.  Therefore, similar charges will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement will be greater for two charges than it would be for a single charge.

One can also derive the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave in terms of the horizontal force developed by the horizontal displacement caused by its peaks and troughs.  This would be analogous to how the perpendicular displacement of a mountain generates a horizontal force on the surface of the earth, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.

Additionally, one can derive the causality of electrical component of electromagnetic energy in terms of the energy associated with its "peaks" and "troughs" that is directed perpendicular to its velocity vector while its magnetic component would be associated with the horizontal force developed by that perpendicular displacement because classical Mechanics tells us a horizontal force will be developed by that displacement which will always be 90 degrees out of phase with it.  This force is called magnetism.

This shows that one can use Einstein’s General theory of Relativity to derive the physical properties of both electromagnetism and gravity.  Additionally it defines the reason why the force of gravity only acts only by attracting objects is because it is confined to the perpendicular axis of space-time or its equivalent in four *spatial* dimensions while electromagnetism can both, attract and repulse objects because it has the freedom to move objects or particles two directions in the two dimensional plane that is perpendicular to gravity’s .

It should be remembered that Einstein’s genius allows us to choose whether to define an electromagnetic wave either a space-time environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined its geometry in terms of the constant velocity of light.

Later Jeff 

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2020

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The particle wave dichotomy of Quantum Gravity

As was mentioned in the Scientific American article "Is Gravity Quantum?"

"All the fundamental forces of the universe are known to follow the laws of quantum mechanics, save one: gravity. However, finding a way to fit gravity into quantum mechanics would bring scientists a giant leap closer to a “theory of everything” that could entirely explain the workings of the cosmos from first principles. A crucial first step in this quest to know whether gravity is quantum is to detect the long-postulated elementary particle of gravity, the gravitron. In search of the graviton, physicists are now turning to experiments involving microscopic superconductors, free-falling crystals and the afterglow of the big bang."

When Einstein was asked about the consequences of not being able to observe the graviton he replied "It seems as though we must sometimes use one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty. We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do"

However, there is a way of fitting gravity into quantum mechanics that does on involve observing the gravitron.

Quantum mechanics assumes all forces are defined by a particle wave dichotomy while Einstein General Theory of Relativity tells us that gravity causes ripples or waves in the fabric of space-time.  However, if one can use the concepts developed by Einstein to show that those gravity waves also exists as a particle wave dichotomy similar to the particle wave dichotomy of quantum mechanics one may be able define a physical connection between his theories and quantum mechanics.

But before we begin, we must first define the relationship between how that particle wave dichotomy manifests itself in the quantum world.

The physicist John Wheeler said the best answer was given by Aatish Bhatia “Don’t look: waves. Look: particles.” That’s quantum mechanics in a nutshell."

In other words, quantum mechanics tells us when a force is observed to interact with an object such as a proton or electron the particle component of its dichotomy becomes predominate while its wave properties only present themselves as it moves unhindered through space.

As was mentioned earlier one may be able to bridge the gap between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity if one can define how and why the wave in space-time Einstein associated with gravity exist as a particle wave dichotomy similar to the other forces that quantum mechanics defines in those terms.

One of the problems we face in doing this is that his theory defines the force of gravity with respect to time while Quantum theory defines all forces in terms of the spatial properties of position when interacting with objects.

However, Einstein gave us a way to transform his time based definition of gravity into a spatial one which is more consistent with Quantum Mechanics spatially oriented definition of a particle when he defined gravities geometric properties in terms of the constant velocity of light.  This is because it allows one to convert a unit of time in his four-dimensional space-time universe to a unit of a space in one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions which would be more consistent with quantum mechanics position orient definition of a particle.  Additionally, because the velocity of light is constant it is possible to defined a one to one correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.

In other words, he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining his space-time universe in terms of an equivalent one in only four *spatial* dimensions.

However, redefining the time based geometry of gravity in terms of its equivalent in four *spatial* dimensions also allows one to not only understand why all forces, including gravity exist as a particle wave dichotomy but also, as mentioned earlier the interaction or non-interaction of a force with anything determines which of those "realities" becomes predominate.

For example the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007 showed one can derive particle properties of the wave component of gravities dichotomy by extrapolating the laws of classical wave mechanics in a three-dimensional environment to a matter wave on a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in one consisting of four *spatial* dimensions.

The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give its wave component the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.

These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the collision of two black holes. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.

The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established space.

Therefore, these oscillations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold would meet the requirements mentioned above for the formation of a resonant system or "structure" in four-dimensional space if one extrapolated them to that environment.

Classical mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.

Hence, these resonant systems in four *spatial* dimensions would be responsible for the discrete quantized energy quantum mechanics associates with the particle component of its particle wave dichotomy.

Yet, it also allowed one to derive the physical boundaries of the particle component of its dichotomy in terms of the geometric properties of four *spatial* dimensions.

For example, in classical physics, a point on the two-dimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to three-dimensional space.

Similarly, an object occupying a volume of three-dimensional space would be confined to it.  However, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate “up” or “down” with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

The confinement of the “upward” and “downward” oscillations of a three-dimension volume with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension by the interaction of forces with "things" in three-dimensional space is what defines the spatial boundaries of the resonant system of the particle component of it particle wave dichotomy defined in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007.

In other words, Einstein theories tell us the particle component of the particle wave dichotomy of gravity would appear or become reality when it confined to three-dimensional space by its interaction with "something" in three-dimensional space.

This is similar to the particle wave dichotomy quantum mechanics associates with all forces in that they manifest themselves as waves until the interact with another quantum system.

Not only that but it allows one to form a direct connection between the General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanic’s assumption that reality is defined in terms of a particle wave dichotomy because the same logic used above can be applied to all forces to explain why, if a force is allowed to move uninhibited through space the wave reality of its dichotomy will be predominate and why if it interacts with anything its particle ones will be predominate.

In other words, we do not have to observe the Gravitron to bring quantum mechanics and its particle wave dichotomy into the Theoretical environment of General Relativity because the physical reasons for that dichotomy are inherent in its theoretical structure.

Additionally, it gives consistent explanation of why one can sum up quantum mechanics in these words "Don’t look: waves. Look: particles" by extrapolating the "single" physical picture provided by the General Theory of Relativity to all quantum systems.

It should be remembered that Einstein’s genius and the symmetry of his mathematics allows us to choose whether to define the reality of a quantum system in either a space-time environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2020

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